|Dwarf elliptical galaxies
A galaxy that is much smaller than other members of the elliptical class; it is designated as dE. A subtype of dwarf ellipticals is called a dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). The basic characteristics of the class are low surface brightness and smooth light distribution. They range in luminosity from that of the faintest dSph galaxies M_V ~ -9 to about -17. In the Local Group there are 19 known dEs. They are very common in galaxy clusters.